Livelihood Improvement and Climate Change
Vocational Training in Nepal
This small scale study on Glimpse of Current Status of Technical Education and Vocational Training (TEVT) in Nepal has carried out by Action Works Nepal (AWON) for German-Nepal Friendship Association (GNFA) in October 2010-January 2011. The main purpose of the study is to survey the status of the technical education and vocational training in Nepal alternative to traditional college and universities. The desk review, participatory interview, discussion meetings, field visits with right holders, experts and representatives of civil societies were followed during process.
In Nepal, the TEVT, is crucial and fundamental component for poverty alleviation through raising income of people with or without school education. It has more significant role in peace building process as well as sustainable development of the country. Thus, Nepal government has taken TEVT very seriously in tenth five year plan (2002/07) by targeting women, dalit and other excluded groups/communities by socially, politically, economically, geographically. As guided by this policy, five types of organizations are providing trainings across Nepal. They are; i) Center for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT), ii) various private institutions, iii) government agencies, iv) technical institutions of universities, v) secondary schools and vi) NGO/INGOs (CTEVT, 2009). All together, 86 types short terms (1-24 weeks) of vocational trainings are running directly by CTEVT as well as in partnership with private, public and community institutions in 41 districts across five development region. Likewise three types of long term trainings is being provided by secondary schools under supervision of CTEVT and over 160 private institutions are in operation for polytechnique TEVT (these are affiliated with CTEVT). Don Bosco Society Nepal also planned to serve seven types of TEVT programs for 2011/12. In 2009/10, a total 35,337 people received various types TEVTs (see box). In order to reach to more poor and excluded groups, Nepal government also prepares guidelines for providing more opportunities to women, dalit and other excluded groups and communities. It is facilitated by organizing various awareness raising programs through community activities. However, the women, dalit and other excluded groups are not really enjoyed through such opportunities. In addition, lack of post employment fund, poor quality training, lower quantity of trainings, discrepancy in demand and supply of training, lack of networking and coordination, poor mindset of trainers and trainees, donor driven culture, lack of job security are observed challenges. It is more fueling due to political unrest and lack of adequate and appropriate training providers/institutions and diverse business community.
In such given scenario, TEVT would be more productive and result oriented if the policy makers, training providers, funders pay more attention in following issues; consultation with stakeholders, ii) thorough specific (local, national and international) market assessment, iii) flexibility in implementation, iv) post training fund (enabling environment for entrepreneurship), v) monitoring before, during and post training and ensure dis-aggregated data in terms of gender, education, class, region, vi) awareness raising as contextual manner, vii) continue researches, viii) incorporation human rights issues in trainings , ix) separation from technical education, x) enable environment for PPP (Private Public partnership) and enable environment for job security for employer and employee.
 so called untouchable and lower caste, constitution has already abolished against such practice.
Social Business is originally initiated by Nobel Laureates, Dr. Prof. Mohammad Yunus, Dhaka Bangladesh. He developed and practiced seven principles on it. They are;
- the business objective is to overcome poverty, or one or more problems that threaten people and society-not to maximize profit.
- The company will attain financial and economical sustainability
- Investors get back only their investment amount. No dividend is given beyond the return of the original investment
- When the investment amount is paid back, profit stays with the company for expansion and improvement
- The company will be environmentally conscious
- The workforce gets market wage with better –than standard working conditions
- Do it with joy.
AWON is also keen to practice above mentioned principles. The Miteri Recyle Center, AWON is trying to do since August 2013. However, it is struggling due to lack of financing and marketing. In Nepal, in collaboration with Yunus Center, Dhaka, Bangladesh, Chaudhary Group is (the first Billionaire from Nepal) initiated social business at the name of CGNSB (Chaudhary Group National Social Business). CGNSB is piloting its four projects in Jumla in collaboration of AWON. CGNSB has been working on incubating four projects; Miteri Karnali Porridge Factory, Hot spring Management, Miteri Peace Learning Center and Jumla Organic Farm where AWON has been facilitating in training workshops, meetings, communications, negotiation and awareness raising about social business.
Study on Impacts of Climate Change in the Livelihoods of People in Jumla, Nepal
The impacts of climate change in Nepal have added new dimension of challenges in a journey to end poverty and promote social justice. More severe impacts have been observed in the rural and remote areas where the livelihoods of people based on subsistence agriculture with limited livelihood options. They are vulnerable to extreme weather events, have poor access to information and lack of resources to cope with and recover from climate-related disasters.
Nepal's temperature is rising by about 0.410C per decade. Warming is much higher in the high altitude mountains and hills and relatively lowers in the Terai regions (0.80, 0.60 and 0.40 in the mountains, hills and Terai respectively) . Country's diverse topography and ecosystems make it difficult to detect patters and plan national responses.
This paper is based on a study conducted by a team of Action Works Nepal in Jumla district of mid-western region of Nepal on October 2010. The district is one of the remote and underdeveloped districts of Nepal with human poverty index- 56.8, life expectancy at birth-50.82 and adult literacy 26.6 (UNDP, 2004). The study site is at 2,662 m altitude in a remote part of the country where the livelihoods of the people basically depends on rain\snow fed agriculture and seasonal migration to India.
The study methodology includes key informant survey, focus group discussions, participant observation and analysis of climate vulnerabilities. The climate vulnerabilities were analyzed in Lamra VDC by using Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis (CVCA) process. The process comprises different participatory tools like hazard mapping, historical timeline, seasonal calendar of livelihoods activities, vulnerability matrix and stakeholders analysis using Venn diagram.
The study revealed many evidences of climate change and its impact on the life and livelihoods of people. The erratic and low rain/snowfall, prolonged dry winters has already impacted on the production of crops and food security. As the crop production, especially the cultivation of high altitude paddy, is a very complex and weather based phenomenon, it has seriously affected due to delay and erratic rainfall. Similarly, the winter crops like wheat, barley, millet and potato are also seriously affected by low and erratic snowfall.
The secondary source of income as well as the means of transportation is based on livestock. The livestock rearing has also affected by limited and less productive grazing lands due to low moisture content and over exploitation of the resources.
Recently, the district has a road access to the district headquarters and it has made easy in the transportation of food and other essential commodities. However with the road access, the unplanned urbanization has been increased in and around the district headquarters and road sides. It has already resulted in deforestation and extraction of stones and soil from the community and government managed forests. Similarly, the community has reported the low availability of non-timber forest products, which is another source of income. The community in Lamra VDC reported the reduced availability of drinking and irrigation water sources.
The increased vulnerability and reduced livelihood options has also increased the off season migration to India, which has increased the risks of indebtedness of the poor families and additional burden to women, children and elder population to cope with extreme vulnerabilities.
The impacts of climate change are not evenly distributed between different communities. Poor and marginalized communities, who often live in vulnerable areas with limited information, limited livelihoods options and low adaptive capacity, are obviously most vulnerable to climate change. Similarly, women are on the frontline of climate change due to their multiple burdens to manage their livelihoods. The predicted impacts of climate change will heighten existing vulnerabilities, inequalities and exposure to hazards.
The social and financial safety nets are not in an easy access to poor community. The institutions like micro-finance groups, community forestry user groups although have a potential role in providing social, environmental and financial safety nets, most of the groups are captured by local elites.
It has been observed that the adaptation needs of marginalized community is far more than the powerful groups so there is a strong rationale for pro-poor investments and international cooperation for strengthening social protection safety nets for poor and marginalized community. There is a need to mainstream climate change adaptation in the national development plans as well as national and local level adaptation plan of action. For details: [email protected]
 Kansakar, S.R., Hannah, D.M., Gerrard, J., and Rees, G. 2004: Spatial patterns in the precipitation regime of Nepal. International Journal of Climatology. Vol 24: 1645-1659.
 Xu Jianchu., Shrestha, AB., Vaidya, R., Eriksson, M., Hewitt, K. 2007: The melting Himalayas: Regional challenges and local impacts of climate change on mountain ecosystems and livelihoods, ICIMOD.